According to their own laws?

The professional autonomy of secondary school teachers in the late 19th century

In this study, I examine the development of the professional autonomy of Hungarian secondary school teachers in the second half of the 19th century. This period is especially important in the life of secondary school teachers, as the possibility of becoming a profession arises before them at the same time as the formation of Hungarian civil society. An examination of the association of secondary school teachers showed that the establishment and maintenance of autonomy was an important goal of contemporary teachers and they were prepared to with both the state and the churches that sustained the majority of secondary schools. In my paper, I argue that despite the growing control and regulation by the state and the influence of churches secondary school teachers and faculties (teaching staff) have had considerable professional autonomy.

Released: Replika 119–120, 85–98.
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